TMC2209 Pinout, Datasheet, Alternatives & Uses

Published:February 18, 2024

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Stepper motors play a crucial role in various industries, robotics, and everyday electronics by rotating in precise steps to position the motor’s shaft accurately. Unlike brushless DC motors, stepper motors have simple drive electronics. One popular stepper motor driver IC is the TMC2209, commonly used in DIY projects, robots, and 3D printers.

In this guide, we'll delve into the TMC2209 IC, exploring its pinout, features, specifications, uses, and more. If you're new to working with TMC2209 or similar stepper motor drivers, this guide will help you get acquainted with the IC.

 

What is TMC2209?

The TMC2209 is a motor driver IC designed for two-phase stepper motors, known for its ultra-silent operation. It can handle a maximum output of 28 V and ±2 A, supporting bipolar stepper motors in 1 to 1/256 step modes. This IC utilizes StealthChop2 technology to ensure quiet motor performance.

 

To control the TMC2209, you can connect it to a microcontroller via UART to send control and tuning commands. Additionally, it features on-chip OTP memory for storing tuning values. With support for a wide range of stepper motor voltages (4.75V to 29V) and an operating voltage of 5V, this low-cost IC is ideal for noise-sensitive applications, including battery-operated devices. The TMC2209 is available in a 28-pad QFN (Quad Flat No-Leads) package.

 

TMC2209 Pinout

As previously mentioned, the TMC2209 Stepper Motor Driver IC comes in a 28-pad QFN package. The image below illustrates the pin diagram of the IC.

 

Next, we will examine the function of each pin of the IC using the table below.

 

Pin Configuration

 

Pin Name Description
VDD & GND Connected to 5V and GND of Controller
VM & GND Used to power the motor
M1A, M1B, M2A, M2B Output Pins, Connected to the 4 Wires of motor
DIR Motor Direction Control pin
STEP Steps Control Pin
MS1, MS2 Microstep Selection Pins
FAULT Fault Detection Pin
PDN_UART UART and Auto Power Down Control: GND=on, VIO=off
CLK Clock Input
SPRD Chopper mode selection: Low=StealthChop, High=SpreadCycle
DIAG Diagnostics Output (VIO=error)
INDEX Index Output (one pulse per each four fullsteps)
EN Enable Motor Outputs (GND=on, VIO=off)

 

Features of TMC2209

Here are the features of the TMC2209 Stepper Motor Driver IC:

  • Supports 2-phase stepper motors with up to 2.8A coil current (peak) and 2A RMS
  • STEP/DIR Interface with 8, 16, 32, or 64 microsteps pin setting
  • Smooth Running with 256 microsteps using MicroPlyer™ interpolation
  • StealthChop2™ technology for silent motor operation
  • SpreadCycle™ for highly dynamic motor control chopper
  • StallGuard4™ for load and stall detection in StealthChop mode
  • CoolStep™ current control for energy savings of up to 75%
  • Low RDSon, Low Heat-Up: LS 170mΩ & HS 170mΩ (Typical at 25°C)
  • Voltage Range: 4.75V to 29V DC
  • Low Power Standby to comply with standby energy regulations
  • Internal Sense Resistor option (no external sense resistors required)
  • Passive Braking, Freewheeling, and automatic power-down features
  • Single Wire UART & OTP for advanced configuration options
  • Integrated Pulse Generator for standalone motion control
  • Full Protection & Diagnostics
  • Compact QFN package with a large heat slug for efficient heat dissipation.

 

TMC2209 Specifications

Here's a summary of important features and specifications of the TMC2209:

  • Two-phase stepper motor driver IC
  • 28-pad QFN package
  • Peak coil current of 2.8A and coil RMS current of 2A
  • Motor supply voltage range of 4.75V to 29V
  • IC operating voltage of 5V
  • 8, 16, 32, or 64 microsteps with STEP/DIR interface
  • Both low-side and high-side RDSON values are 170mΩ
  • On-chip oscillator frequency of 12MHz
  • Maximum external clock frequency of 16MHz
  • Microcontroller communication interface: UART
  • Special features include MicroPlyer, StealthChop2, SpreadCycle, StallGuard, and CoolStep
  • Suitable applications include 3D printers, desktop printers, CCTV, HVAC, home automation, and battery-operated devices.

 

TMC2209 Schematic

 

 

TMC2209 Block Diagram

 

 

Operating Principle

The TMC2XX family of stepper motor driver ICs from Trinamic includes the TMC2209, which is a low-cost and effective solution for achieving noiseless and precise stepper motor operation. The basic application block diagram of the TMC2209 IC is shown in the image above.

Using just a few control pins, you can interface the IC with a microcontroller through UART. One crucial setting is adjusting the step resolution, which offers options of 8, 16, 32, or 64 steps.

The StealthChop2 technology, a proprietary silent drive system, ensures noiseless operation. Additionally, the MicroPlyer technology allows for further microstepping up to 256 steps.

 

TMC2209 Applications

The TMC2209 finds applications in various fields, including:

  • Compatible design upgrades
  • 3D printers
  • Printers, point-of-sale (POS) systems
  • Office and home automation
  • Textile and sewing machines
  • CCTV and security systems
  • ATM and cash recyclers
  • HVAC systems
  • Battery-operated equipment
  • Automatic teller machines (ATMs)
  • Money handling machines
  • Video security cameras
  • Scanners
  • Gaming machines
  • Factory automation
  • Robotics

 

TMC2209 Application Circuit

 

 

How to Use TMC2209

The interfacing diagram for the TMC2209 is shown below. The pinout and operation of the TMC2209 are similar to the A4988 and DRV8825, but it utilizes StealthChop2 technology and other special features for silent and efficient motor operation.

 

In the diagram, the DIR and STEP pins of the module are connected to the microcontroller. The STEP pin controls the steps, while the DIR pin controls the direction. The TMC2209's StealthChop2 technology ensures noiseless operation, maximum efficiency, and optimal motor torque. The TMC2209 offers 9-step resolutions from 1 to 1/256 steps. You can adjust the step resolution using the microstep pins (MS1 & MS2). By setting the appropriate logic levels on these pins, you can select one of the nine-step resolutions.

The TMC2209 uses MicroPlyer technology to achieve a full 256 microsteps with lower-resolution step inputs starting from the full step. It is commonly used to control NEMA series stepper motors like NEMA17, NEMA23, and NEMA34.

 

 

 

What is the Difference between TMC2208 and TMC2209?

 

The main difference between these drivers is in their maximum current output. The TMC2208 drivers are typically rated for up to 1.5A (2.0A peak) continuous motor output, while the TMC2209 drivers are rated for up to 2.0A (2.8A peak) continuous motor output. refer to this article for more information about TMC2208 vs. TMC2209.

 

TMC2209 Alternatives

The TMC2209 stepper motor driver offers advanced features and performance for various motion control applications. However, several alternatives can be considered based on specific requirements and budget constraints. Here are some alternatives to the TMC2209:

 

TMC2208:

The TMC2208 is an earlier version of the TMC2209 and offers similar features but with slightly different specifications. It provides silent operation and smooth motion control suitable for 3D printers and other CNC machines.

 

A4988:

The A4988 is a popular and cost-effective stepper motor driver widely used in 3D printers and other applications. While not as advanced as the TMC2209, it provides reliable performance for basic motion control needs.

 

A498:

The A498 is another stepper motor driver similar to the A4988 but with some variations in specifications. It is suitable for simple motion control applications where cost is a primary consideration.

 

L6474:

The L6474 is a stepper motor driver with integrated microstepping and current control suitable for industrial applications. It offers high performance and reliability but may be more expensive than the TMC2209.

 

L6207:

The L6207 is a dual full-bridge driver designed for bipolar stepper motors. It offers robust performance and is suitable for applications requiring precise motion control and high torque.

 

L6208:

The L6208 is another dual full-bridge driver with similar features to the L6207. It is suitable for driving bipolar stepper motors in various applications, including robotics and automation.

 

Each of these alternatives has its strengths and weaknesses, so the choice depends on the specific requirements of the application, such as noise levels, precision, cost, and available features.

 

TMC2209 Datasheet

Download TMC2209 Datasheet PDF.

 

TMC2225 vs. TMC2209

The TMC2225 is an updated version of the TMC2208, which precedes the TMC2209. It features better thermal characteristics and a slightly larger rectangular chip design. However, it lacks some of the features of the TMC2209, such as higher current capability and sensor-less homing.

The TMC2225 is an ultra-quiet stepper motor driver with improved heat regulation and an affordable price point. It offers a continuous drive current of 1.4A, and a peak current of 2A, and operates within a voltage range of 4.75V to 36V.

On the other hand, the TMC2209 is an ultra-silent motor driver IC designed for two-phase stepper motors, with a maximum current output of 2.0A (2.8A peak).

 

TMC2240 vs. TMC2209

The TMC2240 and TMC2209 are both stepper motor drivers, but they serve different purposes and offer different features:

TMC2240:

  • This is TMC's latest driver, known for its high performance and diagnostic capabilities.
  • It features serial communication interfaces for advanced control.
  • The TMC2240 offers better thermal performance and electrical circuit protection.
  • It supports a higher voltage range and a larger current output compared to the TMC2209.
  • The TMC2240 supports 256 microsteps and a maximum current of 3A.

 

TMC2209:

  • The TMC2209 is an ultra-silent driver designed for two-phase stepper motors.
  • It is particularly popular for improving the motion of 3D printers.
  • The TMC2209 is compatible with a variety of legacy drivers and the TMC2208.
  • It supports 1/256 microsteps and has a maximum current output of 2.8A peak.

 

TMC2130 vs. TMC2209

The TMC2130 and TMC2209 are both motor driver ICs designed for two-phase stepper motors, but they offer different advantages:

 

TMC2130:

  • A high-performance driver IC commonly used in 3D printers, known for its noiseless operation, high efficiency, and excellent motor torque.
  • Features CoolStep technology, which can reduce energy consumption by up to 75%.
  • While efficient, it may generate more heat compared to the TMC2209.

 

TMC2209:

  • An ultra-silent motor driver IC for two-phase stepper motors, ensuring noiseless operation, high efficiency, and optimal motor torque.
  • Offers improved thermal performance and generates less heat than the TMC2130, allowing for higher current intensities.
  • Combines features of the TMC2208 and TMC2130, including StealthChop2 and sensorless homing.

 

Some users argue that since the TMC2209 and TMC2130 are nearly identical in price, there's little reason to choose the TMC2130 over the TMC2209.

 

TMC5160 vs. TMC2209

The TMC2209 and TMC5160 drivers feature an advanced stealthChop2 mode that delivers superior performance, especially at higher accelerations.

When the TMC2209 driver is connected to the mainboard via UART, additional features become available, including motor current settings via software and sensorless homing.

Similarly, when the TMC5160 driver is connected to the mainboard through SPI, additional functionalities are accessible for motor current adjustment via software and sensorless homing.

Refer to this article for more information.

 

Final Words

The TMC2209 stepper motor driver is a powerful and versatile driver that offers silent operation, energy efficiency, and precise control. Whether you're building a 3D printer, CNC machine, or robotic arm, the TMC2209 is an excellent choice that will help you achieve smooth and accurate movements.

 

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FAQ

  • What is the voltage of the TMC2209 driver?

    5.5-28V.

  • How to set the current TMC2209?

    You can adjust the voltage on the Vref pin (ranging from 0 to 2.5V) using a potentiometer.

  • How to put TMC2209 in UART mode?

    To enable UART mode, connect pin 1 of the xxxUART to pin 1 of the xxxSPI, and ensure that no jumpers are set for UART or SPI on the SKR board.

  • Does TMC2209 need cooling?

    For currents up to 1A RMS, a small heat sink placed on the top side of the PCB is sufficient. For higher currents, use a larger heat sink that nearly fills the top side of the PCB, along with a cooling fan.

  • What is TMC2209 standalone?

    The TMC2209 is an ultra-silent motor driver IC designed for two-phase stepper motors. It features an integrated pulse generator for standalone motion, full protection, and diagnostics. The IC comes in a compact QFN package with a large heat slug for efficient heat dissipation.

  • What is the difference between TMC2209 and tmc5160t?

    The TMC2209 is an ultra-silent motor driver IC designed for two-phase stepper motors. In contrast, the TMC5160 is a high-power stepper motor controller and driver IC that features serial communication interfaces.

  • Can I replace A4988 with TMC2209?

    The TMC2209 offers the best compatibility with simple drivers like the A4988 or DRV8825 because it allows the most important settings to be configured via pins.

  • Can a TMC2209 drive a nema 23?

    You can use TMC2209 drivers with your NEMA 23 steppers, but the NEMA 23 steppers may require significantly more current than the TMC2209 can provide. This could negate the reason for using NEMA 23 steppers in the first place. Stepper drivers are responsible for limiting the current supplied to the stepper motor.

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